Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are one of the latest technologies utilized in the hazard management and remote sensing. Nowadays, tendency in the development of UAS is toward autonomous navigation or hybrid tasks. In this context, development of comprehensive, efficient methodologies for path planning, control and navigation of UAS can be regarded as one of the fundamental steps for the development of autonomous systems. Up to now, different planning algorithms have been proposed in the specialized literature in order to enrich the framework of autonomous navigation of unmanned aerial systems. However, few efforts have been devoted to design new chaotic path planners for determining the optimal trajectories of these aerial systems in urban areas. An effective path planning technique can attain mission aims with respect to various restrictions of the UAS and less computational time.
Chaos theory is one of the most studied theories with different applications in engineering and technology. Most of the natural processes demonstrate chaotic behavior such as black hole and clouds. Past researchers showed that if an evolutionary algorithm be hybridized with chaos, its performance will have improved, considerably. However, most of the evolutionary algorithms are inspired from nature, but all of their steps are random based motions. But nature is not either completely random based or chaotic. Hence, the combination of these theories should be more realistic. With this regard, evolution and chaos are related to each other narrowly in most of the complex natural systems. It is evidenced that some of the chaotic signals can alleviate the premature convergence problem of the evolutionary algorithms in tackling optimization problems.
In this article, first, UAS path planning is modeled as a 3D constrained optimization problem. In this modeling, the aim is the optimization of path, fuel and safety with respect to different restrictions. After scheming and suggesting of general planning framework, UAS path planning problem is investigated by comparative study with regard to the studied scenario. For this aim, evolutionary planner is implemented in order to minimize the flight height, path length and energy consumption considering different restrictions such as safe altitude, turning angle, climbing slope, gliding slope, no fly zones and mission map limits. Then, a comprehensive model is employed to describe route-planning task, and then, based on the hybridization of chaos theory with evolutionary computing, four new evolutionary optimizers are developed. Hence, this paper developed four chaotic optimizers including particle swarm optimization, differential evolution, imperialist competitive algorithm and artificial bee colony technique based on 14 chaotic signals.
In the rest of this paper, analyses, and extensive performance evaluation of the designed trajectory-planning approaches are performed according to the success rate results, precision and quality of the results, CPU running times, and convergence speed. The results show that the proposed framework can be utilized in represented scenario as an effective path planner. Proposed strategies are capable to compute the optimal paths more efficiently in comparison with the standard algorithms. From the results it is known that the chaotic differential evolution with logistic map can outperform the other compared algorithms.